#+ fig.width=12, fig.height=8
#### Chapter 4: Analytical statistics
# The file <104_03-04_vpcs.csv> contains data from a corpus study on the alternation of particle placement that was introduced in Section 1.3.
# - column 1: the number of the data point
# - column 2: whether the example is from spoken or written language
# - column 3: which construction is used
# - column 4: how complex the direct object is (3 levels)
# - column 5: how long the direct object is (in syllables)
# - column 6: whether the verb-particle construction is followed by a directional PP (2 levels)
# - column 7: whether the referent of the direct object is animate or inanimate (2 levels)
# - column 8: whether the referent of the direct object is concrete or abstract (2 levels)
# Read in this file, make the column names available, and test whether the input was successful.
# (1) You want to explore the frequencies of abstract and concrete direct objects in all verb-particle constructions.
# (a) Formulate the text and statistical hypotheses for this study.
# (b) Explore/summarize the data and represent them graphically.
# (c) Compute the required statistical test(s) and measures and briefly summarize the result.
# (2) You want to test whether the lengths of the direct objects are normally distributed.
# (a) Formulate the text and statistical hypotheses for this study.
# (b) Explore/summarize the data and represent them graphically.
# (c) Compute the required statistical test(s) and measures and briefly summarize the result.
# (3) You want to test whether there is a correlation between the constructional choices and the complexity of the direct object.
# (a) Formulate the text and statistical hypotheses for this study.
# (b) Explore/summarize the data and represent them graphically.
# (c) Compute the required statistical test(s) and measures and briefly summarize the result.
# (4) Since the complexity of the direct objects appears to influence the constructional choice, you now want to test whether the general distributions of the lengths are also correlated with the constructional choices.
# (a) Formulate the text and statistical hypotheses for this study.
# (b) Explore/summarize the data and represent them graphically.
# (c) Compute the required statistical test(s) and measures and briefly summarize the result.